Bibliographic Data on the Web of Data or from UNIMARC Record to RDF Graph

Predrag Perožić

Abstract


The Web of Data project is developing rapidly and already gathers hundreds of larger and smaller databases containing billions of RDF triplets connected in one large RDF graph (Global Giant Graph) through which it is possible to navigate from any node (resource) to any other node. However, there are still large databases that are not included in GGG. Databases whose data are not disassembled into smallest (atomic) data elements that can be machine-understandable, nor were they assigned the appropriate URIs, cannot form a RDF triplets. Their data are not readily available, it is said to have been locked in "silos" because their use requires special applications, special protocols and special authorities and knowledge of the users. Many valuable information are buried in a formats for transferring and storing data and do not contribute to the network effect of human knowledge on the web. A familly of bibliographic (UNI)MARC formats is one of this "silos". Each networked data gets added value with the increase of its interconnection. However, in the case of a database where complex semantic relations between entities are presented, something more than simply an automatic translation of human readable data in RDF triplet is needed. To become a functional part of the global data network that runs on a single platform data should be more or less re-structured. It’s not always easy to do. When it comes to bibliographic data stored in one of the (UNI) MARC formats it can also mean the creation of completely new data model. The types of resources that are intended to be described in UNIMARC/B format include virtually any cultural object. For example, if we are supposed to describe even the three-dimensional artifacts and realities (such as toys and all sorts of utility objects or artifacts), then the resource class covers all the potential objects of the real world. As we know, even the object of the natural world can occur in a context that makes it a cultural object, such as the famous antelope in a zoo that can occur as a showpiece to be cataloged. (UNI)MARC formats are pre-web information systems in which the bibliographic databases are modeled according to the closed-world assumption. This means that the mechanism of appellation / identification of resources is unique but local. The system has no "awareness" of the existence of other resources that are out of reach. In addition, the unique identification within the format is carried out over a relatively small number of resources. At last, a large part of the data is presented informally, in natural language, because it is expected that people rather than machines are to interpret their meaning. To respond to the emergence of new types of resources and provide new ways of linking them (UNI)MARC formats are occasionally expanded and upgraded. Theoretically, the number of fields and subfields could be endlessly upgraded. As well as to the book that describes every day a bigger part of the world, a pages and chapters could be added. But, no matter what might be added into this format, the crucial question is whether all the bibliographic data can be represented in atomistic form that enables machine understanding. Full machine semantics is a prerequisite of widely available and arbitrarily interconnected data. This is the meaning of semantic web slogan "anyone should be able to say anything about anything". After the cry "make love not war" I believe this is the second most important phrase spoken in the past one hundred years. It's not just technology, it's a new culture. Nevertheless, technically speaking, for this new type of functionality we do need a different technology. What is being offered from W3C’s laboratory is, first of all, different but universal data model – RDF. This model is not universal because its basic release meets everyone's needs and wishes, but because it allows for various extensions and adjustments, so-called application profiles, which best suit the individual domains. Poster description: Poster will be a series of six illustrations, 3 in the upper part +3 in the lower part, showing the gradual transformation of the two specific UNIMARC records into two RDF/XML document. The upper record is description of bibliographic resources, the lower record is authorized bibliographic data. So, in the upper part there are three successive images: 1) an example of UNIMARC/B records in ISO2709 standard notation 2) entity-relationship diagram that shows FRBR-isation of the same record and 3) a set of triplets in the RDF/XML serialization showing this very same data. In the lower part there are also three pictures: 1) an example of UNIMARC/A records in the ISO2709 standard notation 2) visualized graph that shows data according to the Library of Congress MADS / RDF model and 3) the same set of data in the RDF / XML serialization.

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