Ethics is concerned with
critical thinking on technical, economic, moral
and legal structures and traditions that shape
the lives of societies. It aims at questioning
our biases as well as at opening new options.
Digital libraries are part of an emerging digital
culture. New questions concerning production,
collection, classification and dissemination of
knowledge arise within a culture of sharing that
may collide with a culture of copyright
protection. How can the democratic right of
access to knowledge be guaranteed? Creating
public digital libraries may be an answer to this
question. But how do they merge into existing
traditional libraries? What kind of public
services should they offer? What kind of digital
collections should they create? How can the
integrity and sustainability of these collections
be economically, technically and culturally
guaranteed? Who are the de facto beneficiaries of
these value-added services?
The so called "Digital Divide"
has received increasing attention in the past few
years in the highest circles, including the G8
summit. The lack of connectivity is said to be a
major risk for the welfare of people while being
connected is depicted as a free entrance ticket
to paradise. Such millenarian views are both
simplistic and unethical. They are a symptom of a
spreading mental disease which we called "hICTeria".
A more objective and balanced look at present
divides and their causes is required. It is also
useful to consider what role the Information and
Communication technologies may play in people's
struggle with their key problems and what other
conditions should be met for this role to be
effective. These issues will
Libraries have always held
significant personal data resources, most of
which relate to their users. The professional
ethos of librarianship respects the
confidentiality of client information. At the
same time librarians have been very strongly
committed to freedom of access to information.
Thus the content of the confidential transactions
between librarian and user has been
overwhelmingly that of unquestioning response to
demands for information. This has made the
content of reader records of genuine potential
interest to police or intelligence agencies, and
in totalitarian regimes there is evidence that
such records have been used for this purpose.
Whilst user records have been in paper files,
retrieval of specific details has not always been
particularly easy. However electronic files are
much more comprehensive and easy to access. Today
there is a real interest from commercial
organisations in data (such as library records)
that would identify possible consumers of
particular products and services. In the light of
this radically changed situation, Re:source (the
UK Council on Museums Libraries and Archives) is
funding a study of the issue by the Legal and
Policy Research Group at Loughborough
University's Department of Information Science. A
survey of a wide range of British libraries was
undertaken in late 2000, as part of this project.
Preliminary results from this, on the extent of
libraries' awareness of the issue, and
preparedness to respond to approaches for access
to data, will be reported in this paper.
The presentation will focus on
regulations for the use of the electronic library
based on the Bochum experience. A further focus
will be copyright in the networked world applied
to linking. Also, the presentation will give
information on the legal aspects of handling user
and staff data and it will discuss some of the
legal aspects of designing web sites and
In this paper I ll describe how a
cluster of nine courses was developed to upgrade
and train staff in academic libraries and their
contents. The project was carried out by 3
University libraries in The Netherlands with the
financial support of IWI (Innovation Scientific
Information). The courses are available for all
The contents of the library
holdings in possession of the Croatian National
Bank specialised library are constrained on
topics that are of preponderant importance in
central banking operations and thus mainly focus
on macroeconomics, monetary economics and finance.
The main purpose of specialised holdings is to
fulfil the needs of the CNB's employees.
Influenced by its users requests, the CNB Library
decided to build and to promote a completely new
information and data system that will try to
incorporate and enlarge the current library
holdings with material represented on various
word-supporting mediums. In order to accomplish
such a concept, the Hybrid Library Project was
first initiated as a transition stage from
traditional (or conventional) library to the
truly digital one. The hybrid library is nothing
but a place where electronic and printed
materials are equally represented. This
organisational concept enabled the CNB
specialised library to develop, in a relatively
short time, an efficient system that entirely
satisfies the current needs in data and
information searching, storing and circulation.
According to the project, the process of CNB's
library holdings computer systematisation is well
under way. All relevant references are
electronically accessible (via the so-called meta
data supported by documentation operating
programme). As well, to its final users, the
library forwards two streams of relevant
information: OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)
and SDI (Select Disemination Information). The
CNB library shaped its official web page in
accordance with this organisational scheme. The
web page also represents the starting point in
reaching various components of Informational
System (Library, Archive, and numerous data basis).
The access to CNB's internal LAN data basis is
also developed (their main purpose is to enable
perusal and storage of the PDF publications).
Furthermore, such an organisational approach
gives the CNB's library easier and better access
to library holdings and the ability to interact
with various related institutions such as foreign
central banks, research and academic
institutions, bureaus of statistics, commercial
banks and other financial institutions.
Library Web site can be seen both
as an information service and an organizational
shop window. When evaluating a library Web site
quality we can't concentrate only on traditional
library services but we should also evaluate its
marketing strategy. In other words, in a highly
competitive environment it's not enough to
deliver high quality services - it is necessary
to attract potential users and make a Web site
visible and worth exploring. It seems to be
extremely important now when many various
information services are being created by
amateurs with commercial purposes. Such services
are often supported by powerful investors and
marketing know-how. The goal of this paper is to
compare what is being done to promote Web
services by academic libraries in Poland in
comparison with commercial companies. The stress
is laid on important factors that lead to
increase visits, the content and search engine
A team of members of the newly
established Working Group for People with Special
Needs and Disabilities of the Croatian Library
Association have been creating a database of
digital information for people with disabilities.
The database would consist of digital texts (reference
works such as dictionaries and encyclopaedias,
electronic newspapers and magazines, etc.),
digital tactile drawings and museum objects, and
sites on the WWW which are designed in
conformance to W3C Guidelines. In order to be of
any use to, for example, people with impaired
sight, sources of information need to be designed
in accordance with W3C Guidelines and clearly
structured. It is the first attempt to enable
access to digital resources for this group of
users. Also, there are several speech synthesis
software programs available for the Croatian
language that will be presented. An analyses is
made of the existing ones, and a new one is
created at the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb,
Department of Phonetics, which is supposed to
unite advantages of the existing ones.
Libraries are about many things.
But, collections have always been at the heart of
libraries, be they digital, traditional brick and
mortar, or hybrid between the two. Moreover,
collections will retain that role in the future
as well. However, the concept of what constitutes
a collection in the networked environment of
digital libraries is undergoing a transformation
from the age-old concept of library collection
signified by ownership. A new concept of a
digital collection is evolving incorporating
adaptations of many old features and standards,
and creation of many brand new ones. The
economics are now based on access rather than
ownership. This conceptual and pragmatic
evolution is far from over. Furthermore, the
concept and process of collection development is
undergoing a transformation as well. This is due
to the effect of great many and diverse digital
resources and tools that can be used in
collection development and that are generally and
easily available through the Internet. New
processes and tools for collection development
has emerged, used for development of both,
traditional and digital collections. What are
digital library collections? The question looms
as a large problem for practice and for research
and development. This presentation summarizes the
problems and contemporary approaches to this
The concept of digital library has
several differing interpretations, derived from
different communities involved in digital library
research, practice, organization, and commerce.
Educational offerings followed these activities.
The major aim of the paper is to present results
from a survey on the current state of digital
library education in academic institutions. But
we also examine the rationale and orientation for
digital library education. We suggest several
models that have emerged in the teaching of
digital libraries and in incorporation of
relevant topics into various curricula.
WWW.HR is a Web-based information
service supported by the Croatian Academic and
Research Network (CARNet). WWW.HR consists of two
services: general info on Croatia and a directory
of the Croatian Web sites. As of April 2001, the
directory of Croatian Web sites contains about 6,000
links, hierarchically organized in 15 categories
and 375 subcategories. Sites are added based on
submissions from webmasters. All newly submitted
sites are reviewed by the administrator and added
to the directory. The content of the directory is
fully searchable by keyword and/or by Boolean
expression. Introducing metadata in the directory
is studied as a way of enabling better search
capabilities and thus adding value to this
information service. This paper presents the
evolution of the WWW.HR directory, retrospecting
its past and reviewing its current status, with a
special emphasis on most recent developments and
use of metadata.
In the Western tradition there
have evolved a series of ethical principles that
many people invoke in personal and professional
contexts. There are 5 main ones: (1) Respect the
autonomy of the self and others (which entails
such values as freedom and self-determination (moral
autonomy), protection from injury, equality of
opportunity, privacy, minimal well-being and
recognition for one's work) ; (2) Seek justice or
fairness; (3) Seek social harmony; (4) Act in
such a way that the amount of harm is minimized,
and (5) Be faithful to organizational,
professional and public trust. Not only are there
difficulties in applying these principles, there
are also tensions among them, particularly those
principles that respect the autonomy of human
beings (deontological theories) and those
principles that try to establish social harmony (consequentialist
or utilitarian theories). For example, in library
collection development, there are two contrary
ethical demands. When a public library's
selection policies favor acquiring materials that
suit the interests of the majority of its patrons
(e.g., buying best sellers) they are following
utilitarian or consequentalist principles (principle
3 above), and if high circulation counts are a
measure for the library's utility, it would
benefit the library to do so; yet excessive
spending on best sellers does a disservice to the
atypical library user. On other occasions,
collection developers may act like Kantians (principles
1 and 2). When libraries buy works only likely to
attract few readers, we are respecting the
diversity of library users; yet excessive
spending on low-frequency-usage works does a
disservice to the majority of library users. This
presentation will explore some of the tensions of
ethical principles as applied to library and
The Anglo-American tradition of
fair use appears to be under attack and declining
in the midst of the global information economy
and the commoditization of information. Under the
doctrine of fair use, there are clear exemptions
against claims of copyright infringement: In the
United States, the doctrine of fair use (similar
to fair dealing in the United Kingdom) permits
certain uses of copyrighted works: for criticism,
reporting, comment, news, teaching, scholarship
and research, but even within these cases, each
specific case must be judged on its own grounds.
The digital divide issue
incorporates two or more of the values librarians
recognize as primary. These include literacy,
equality of access, and information literacy. The
literacy question and the access question are
ageless. The term digital divide means the
difference in access to digital information,
skills, hardware and software by information
"haves" and "have nots." The
term has been used in two ways -- to describe the
gap between haves and have nots within countries
like the United States or Brazil. It is also used
to describe the differences between the post
industrial information age countries lie the
countries of North America and Western Europe and
the Newly Industrializing Countries (NIC) of
Africa, parts of Asia, and parts of South and
Copyright stems form the wish of
an individual and/or institution to protect its
own information from change, abuse or misuse by
others, as well as to gain and restrict financial
benefit(s) from its own previous work.
Is it true that digital libraries
are for the most part "write only archives,"
adding to an overall deluge of electronic data
and lack of relevant information? Arguably, these
"information spaces" should be able to
provide cultural experiences, in order to
participate in the public discourses of culture.
They would have to grow beyond collections from
which relevant information may be retrieved
efficiently, to the new metaphors of culture.
This paper outlines a program for the study of
the current involvement of current digital
library initiatives (in North America) in
creating digital history. This paper is an
exploratory study of digital library as cultural
agency. It aims to establish a model for the
comparative study of the structures providing
digital continuity to historical materials, the
archival digital libraries. In the United States,
there is a variety of projects, some of which
have emerged in a variety of academic settings,
such as The Making of America (Cornell), the
Library of Congress' American Memory, and other
efforts, primarily associated with universities,
and memory institutions (archives, libraries and
museums). The European models have a centralized
approach, developing from within the national
libraries. The focus of the study is on
individual cultural contexts and how they are
approaching the issues of managing cultural
heritage. The analysis is based on existing
research of social memory (Fentress & Wickham
1991), national culture (Confino 1997) and the
process of invented traditions (Hobsbawm and
Ranger 1983). The models are largely determined
by the funding process, which calls for an
analysis of national information policies with
regard to funding current digital library
projects. The methodology used is a combination
of document analysis and website analysis and in
this first phase, it develops a framework using
data from the projects in the United States.
|SOFIJA KLARIN, SONJA PIGAC, DAMIR PAVELIC, PAUL CUNNEA: Metadata on the Word Wide Web: an analysis of Croatian electronic publishing|
The explosion of publishing in the
Internet raises the problems of searching,
retrieval, identification and preservation of
electronic documents. Librarians create metadata
(bibliographic records) to manage and provide
access to collections. Cataloguing is a primary
method of bibliographic control but there is no
way the librarians can describe even the most
relevant Internet resources because the number of
relevant documents is too big. Metadata, often
defined as data about data, is seen as welcomed
alternative to cataloguing. In the Internet
metadata is a structured description of
attributes of a resource. Matadata functionality
goes beyond the cataloguing functions of
description and access, to include content rating
for filtering out sensitive information objects,
and description of intellectual property rights
of electronic publications. The reason there is
not much metadata in the Internet is the fact
that publishers adopt standards only where there
are good comercial reasons for doing so.
Interchange of metadata between publishers and libraries will be an essential element in managing the deposit of electronic publications in the future. Electronic publishing in Croatia has been growing slowly in the last ten years. Today we have more than 150 serial publications (newspapers, weekly magazines, e-zines etc.) and small numer of monograph publications has also been published (fiction, IT manuals). E-publications metadata descriptions are (un)available depending on (lack of) seriousness and skills in presenting them.
This workshop will briefly explain/remind us of different models of metadata, with the emphasis being on Dublin Core. Simplicity of making meta descriptions using freeware web-available editors will be shown. Once made, metadata can easily be put into an HTML document in different formats such as Dublin Core, RDF-XML or XHTML. Consideration of different metadata schemes and conversion tools from one format to another will be mentioned.
In the context of publishing on the Web this workshop will describe the electronic environment, explore the role of the library in managing e-publications, the current development of e-publishing in Croatia, and the use of embedded metadata on the Web. The scale of the Web and the challenges for those contemplating its management are briefly examined. The possibilities and practicalities of cataloguer-based management are described, focusing on bibliographic control of e-serials. This will include reference to the use of existing standards, differences and similarities between traditional and electronic resources, emerging definitions, and the practical issues that arise in e-serial management.
This is followed by an overview of the current state of e-publishing in Croatia. Two surveys were carried out. All e-serials were examined and the results concerning availability, publishing and publishers will be shown. An additional survey has been carried out among e-publishers on their knowledge of metadata in general, metadata description and schemes, metadata use in HTML documents and interest in cooperating and learning more. Based on the results i.e. e-serial authors` point of view, current practice in Croatian libraries and practical examples from from other libraries and projects. (Biblink, CORC), new metods of cooperation between libraries and publishers will be discussed.
|MALORE I. BROWN: Digital Libraries and Children's Collections in Public Libraries: Where do they meet?|
Objectives: Participants will understand the importance of digital collections in children's collections in public libraries and how to select materials for the digital and traditional collections. Participants will gain insight into collection development of electronic resources that compliment their traditional collections and recognize the realities of day-to-day management of a virtual library environment. Participants will be able to answer the following questions: How can digital libraries prepare children for the virtual information world? What are the implications for the development of digital collections?
Description: This program focuses on digital information resources, and virtual collection development. With the foundation of traditional information resources, participants are introduced to the role of emerging technologies in the digital information environment.
Areas of focus include: the coordination, management and evaluation of virtual information services; content development, selection and management in this environment; issues in digital information collections, such as access versus ownership, and risk management in the context of rapid technological change.
Program Format: One and a half hour
Outline: Presentation of process of collection
development in a traditional public library
setting (20 minutes). Identify the challenges of
collection development in digital libraries (20
minutes). Presenter will highlight the practice
issues and research issues in selecting and
access both types of collections (20 minutes).
Participants are encouraged to discuss concerns
in selection of materials (30 minutes).
|IRENA PILAS AND ZANETA BARSIC-SCHNEIDER: Official publications on the Web (workshop will be offered in Croatian language)|
Official information available on
the Web are today essential source of information
not only for government institutions, scientific
research and education but for all citizens in a
democratic society. Official publications and
governmental publications can be found at a
number of Web pages. In addition, digital
libraries are being founded by international
organisations and governments wishing to provide
thorough and extensive information on the way
they are organised and structured, as well as on
decisions they make and policies they carry out.
Section on Government Information and Official
Publications is a part of IFLA. IFLA, together
with some similar organisations, like FAIFE, is
in charge of making official publications
available to a large number of users. It is also
worth noting that the United Nations on the
intercontinental level, and EU and EC on the
European level, have made a number of decisions
to secure the availability of official
publications and information. Those materials are
very valuable because they provide thematically
varied scope of information put together by a
team of experts. They are to be accessed through
all media, but the Internet, where they have been
generally made available in their full versions.
The workshop is intended to demonstrate methods
of searching and retrieval of official
publications available on the Internet. Special
attention will be particularly paid to
specifications of their network outlets. Also,
Croatian, US, Canadian, Australian etc.
governmental official publications will be
presented, searched and evaluated, as well as
publications provided by other international and
national organisations available on WEB.
|PAUL NIEUWENHUYSEN: Online access to information sources and services|
In this workshop an overview is
presented of contemporary methods to find
information through the Internet and the WWW
about a particular subject, to support
management, decision making, scientific research,
journalism and so on. It is hoped to have a
lively discussion and some hands-on experience by
using the available microcomputers and Internet
access. The following subjects are briefly
discussed: dictionaries and encyclopedias,
Internet subject directories for browsing,
Internet indexes for full text searching, multi-threaded
meta-search systems, finding images and sounds,
finding books and journal articles, using
electronic journals, using current awareness
systems, classical citation searching through the
WWW and using citations to WWW pages, evaluation
of Internet based information sources, evolution
and trends in online information services, using
computer-based network interest groups. Because
only 90 minutes are available during the actual
workshop, participants should ideally come well
prepared by experience or by inspecting some of
the study materials in the form of slide
presentations that may be relevant for this
workshop, which are available through the WWW at http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/courses/chapters/index.html or by reading some
documents that are included in the bibliographies
that come with the presentations, and which are
also available through the WWW at http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/courses/bibliography/index.html .
The participants can raise questions and can express their preference for particular topics to be discussed during the workshop, by sending an email message to Paul.Nieuwenhuysen@vub.ac.be as soon as possible before the workshop.
|MICHEL MENOU: Myths, realities and solutions regarding the "digital divide"|
At both the national and
international level, the so-called " Digital
divide " has been the focus of attention
among most parties concerned with the new E-conomy.
Whether this is a specific phenomenon, what are
its characteristics and what actions and policies
can be devised in order to deal with it are
subject to debate. Despite the current confusion,
public ICT policies seem to be built on the
assumption that they have to overcome this
Digital divide and claim they are going to do it.
The workshop is intended to provide an
opportunity for an unconstrained brainstorming
about the concept, the facts and their
assessment, the appropriate policies.
Participants are invited to critically review
related literature, policy material and public
discourses in their respective countries or areas
or expertise or interest and bring to the
workshop their answers to such questions as:
Is there really a digital divide?
If yes, how can it be measured, what are its causes and effects?
If not, what is all that fuss about?
What are current policies likely to achieve?
What policies are required to properly address the inequities in access and use of ICT?
What are the conditions for these policies to be effective?
What are the appropriate
ways to present issues related ICT in
society with a view to ensure effective
citizens' participation in a democratic
debate and decision-making process?
|MARTHA M. SMITH: Selection not Censorship: Collection Development in a Global Digital Age|
Beginning in the mid-fifties, Professor Lester Asheim made a significant contribution to debates about censorship and the role of the librarian in collection development. By focusing on the positive aspect of selection, inclusion rather than exclusion, Asheim envisioned a practical approach, thoroughly grounded in the highest standards of the profession and one as useful in the digital age as it was in the mid-century. This presentation will revisit Asheim's insights in light of the challenges of the digital age, using the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The idea of the collection will be examined as a moral artifact and the librarian as an active selector and a moral agent in contributing to the goals of freedom, justice and peace. The key statement often associated with libraries and libraries, Article 19, will set the context.
Article 19: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."
Like Asheim's principle, Article 19 will be applied to the special challenges of both traditional and virtual libraries as telecommunications and the Internet connects the peoples of the world. The threats to freedoms as well as the potential for extending human dignity and rights will be explored with concrete suggestions for action, local and global.
|IRENE WORMELL: Adding value to information services : Exploring databases as analytical tools (half day, 4 hours)|
The tutorial will draw attention to the vast potential of online databases as analytical tools and present methodologies how to track down analytical information in large collections of bibliographic data. It will be emphasised that advanced online search facilities have considerably increased the potential application of bibliometric analysis for tracing trends and developments in society, science and business. Through the presentation of research projects and case studies carried out at the Centre for Informetric Studies in Copenhagen, the scope and nature of informetric analyses will be discussed from the perspective of information professionals and online searchers. The presentation will also include a discussion on the possibility of applying informetric methods to the analysis of the World Wide Web (Webometrics) - for measuring impact, visibility and connectivity.
Who should attend?
Research librarians, (advanced) online searchers and researchers involved in the (quantitative) analysis of the literature in various disciplines and business areas. Information professionals supporting teams of market and business intelligence, policy makers, managers of scientific and technical development projects, innovation teams.
Wormell´s publications related to the topic:
Bibliometric Analysis of the International Impact of Scientific Journals. How "international" are the international journals. Journal of Documentation, 54(1998) 5, pp. 584-605.
Establishment of a LIS research and education network in the Republic of South Africa. Education for Information, 16(1998)3, p. 253
Online searching is like gold-washing. Managing Information, 5(1998)7, pp.37-40
Informetrics: Exploring databases as analytical tools. Database, 21(1998)5, pp. 25-30
Publication behaviour and international impact: Scandinavian clinical and social medicine 1988-96.
Scientometrics, 46(1999). pp.487-499. (Co-author with P.Ingwersen)
Libri´s Golden Jubilee in a Bibliometric Mirror. Libri, 50(2000)2, 30 p. In Press.
Bibliometric Analysis of the Welfare State as a Research Phenomenon. Scientometrics, 47(2000)2, pp.203-236 .
Critical Aspects of the Danish Welfare State -As Revealed by Issue Tracking. Scientometrics, 47(20002, pp.237-250.